So many foot problems could be prevented if people with diabetes had their feet thoroughly examined by a podiatrist. Worldwide, guidelines for the management of diabetes recommend an annual foot examination at the very least.
Today we celebrate World Diabetes Day. What a pity that so many people with diabetes wont feel like celebrating because they suffer some foot complications. This can be as simple as a painful corn or as complicated as an amputation.
As a podiatrist I would like to be celebrating an improvement in the foot health of South Africans, but unfortunately many people with diabetes have never seen a podiatrist, mistakenly believing that since they have no visible foot problems everything is fine.
Diabetes causes changes to the circulation and nerves to the legs and feet which often develop slowly and almost without notice. Recently I have heard people say that they have the less serious diabetes “the second type”!
Managing diabetes is a team effort and the podiatrist is a member of the team. If you neglect your feet and have no idea if they are showing the effects of diabetes, you are probably going to develop, corns, callus, blisters, ulcers and worse. Do you know the quality of your circulation? Are you sure you can feel everything with your nerves?
Why not commit to better foot health today by making an appointment with a podiatrist for a diabetic foot assessment?
On July 28 2008, on this website I wrote about Dialysis and the diabetic foot, with a description of a foot ulcer patient.
Last week I was invited to speak to patients of the Cape Town Dialysis Clinics about foot care; during my preparation I came across some startling evidence proving that dialysis is an independent risk factor for foot ulceration if you have diabetes and require dialysis.
We already know that impaired kidney function increases the risk of foot ulcers – also referred to in my 2008 Blog – but this 2010 research proves that:
If you have diabetes and are receiving dialysis, you are 5 times more likely to develop foot ulcers, compared to someone with diabetes who is not on dialysis.
Scary but true clear evidence from a study completed at Manchester UK.
The research showed that patients on dialysis have more nerve damage, circulatory problems and a history of foot ulcers and amputations.
There is a 25% lifetime risk of people with diabetes developing foot ulcers so the key issue whatever your status is prevention.
Diabetic foot ulcers have multiple causes, some are: external trauma from footwear, neuropathy, arterial damage, poor self-care, lack of access to care, poor treatment.
However, as with all research you must ask – “so what?” This patient group did not include any people of colour, so it may not apply totally to South African patients.
So what to do? our objective is always to PREVENT complications.
Every person with diabetes must have an ANNUAL FOOT EXAMINATION so that they understand their level of risk for developing foot complications.
in addition individual education on self management of their diabetes. this is a team effort, paying attention to cardio-vascular health, eyesight, footwear selection and fitting, foot biomechanics (and possibly insoles or orthotics), plus probably the most important factor – can you invest in the care being offered?
Always “take care of your pair”.
After months of searching I am very pleased to be able to inform all my Johannesburg patients that their files will be taken over by Louise Stirk, who practises in Woodmead. Louise has a wide range of fields of interest and they dovetail nicely with my own.
Contact Louise on 011 844 0400
Sadly the Wits Donald Gordon Medical Centre has not been able to offer even sessional rooms to any podiatrist, despite attempts by colleagues. Therefore, there is no longer any podiatry service available there.
For details of my current practice locations in Cape Town and Hout Bay please click here for my Contact page.
Walking in the Bush can be one of the joys of living in Africa. However, it does have its drawbacks apart from the animals you may encounter!
Last week a young man came in as an emergency, telling me that whilst walking in the bush, a thorn had gone into the inside of his left ankle. The thorn was removed completely and initially there was no pain, but about 4 hours later it was excruciating. The thorn was from a tree called in Afrikaans Kameeldoring, one of the Acacia species, certain of which are poisonous.
A local Doctor prescribed antibiotics for 10 days, but now, the foot was still very painful and only relieved by taking an anti-inflammatory every 8 hours.
Examining the site of entry(parallel to the ground and straight into the medial malleolus – that’s the lump on the inside of your ankle), – there was no inflammation, but lower down towards the arch there was some swelling and inflammation.
Standing on tip-toe was painful so initially thought of damage to the Tibialis Posterior Tendon. However, the pain was described as …”burning and running over the bridge(arch) of my foot.” As I palpated down the foot towards the sole, it was possible to create the pain, which also went “into the foot”.
A Sonar scan was ordered which showed some fluid collection around the tendon when compared to the right foot. No other pathologies were detected, such as a foreign body, thrombus, tendon tear etc.
So what is the provisional diagnosis? Possible trauma to the Tibial nerve. The diagnosis is based on the nature and site of the pain described, plus the fact that the Tibial nerve runs in the area where the thorn penetrated the foot. For the time being the treatment is local ice and continue with the anti-inflammatory.
World Diabetes Day takes place every November 14th. Diabetes is a serious chronic disease. It is estimated that 250 million people worldwide have diabetes (about 6% of the adult population between 20 -79 years). This number is expected to reach 380 million by 2025, (7.1% of the adult population)
Every 30 seconds a leg is lost to diabetes somewhere in the world!
Many diabetic foot ulcers and amputations can be prevented
Starting this week podiatrists nationwide will be promoting foot health awareness in various ways as their contribution to preventing the complications of Diabetes.
Check your local press for details of free screenings, talks, fun walks etc., often with Diabetes SA.
In our practice free screenings can be booked via Lauretta. 011 726 6363.
Nationwide contact the South African Podiatry Association; 011 7943297
Screening is a short observation of key signs to identify the risk level of your feet.
Not every person with diabetes is at risk, but some are and have no idea that they are.
If you know that you are at risk, the podiatrist will become a key person in your life.
Act now – your life might depend on it!
Take this opportunity to finf out your risk status.
Last week I was invited to the Headquarters of ESKOM our Electricity Supply Commission, to talk about footwear selection and the effects of high heels, amongst other things!
From the outset it was clear that ESKOM is very concerned about safety – we were briefed on where and how to get out of the venue should there be a ‘problem’ – before the talks began.
It seems that the greatest cause of occupational injuries at Eskom HQ is Slips, Trips & Falls, nothing to do with electricity at all! So they decided to do something about the problem by discussing it. There were two scientists from the National Institute for Occupational Health also presenting and they showed some of the scary activities that employees do in incorrect footwear. Like climbing ladders, wearing high heeled shoes on slippery floors, or wet floors.
Even with the current fashion for lower heeled shoes amongst women, there was a slipping incident at ESKOM recently.
Flooring was identified as a major cause of slips at work, but also there is the choice of inappropriate footwear as I pointed out previously. Amongst other causes are uneven floors, poor lighting.
Having a spare pair of shoes at work is one solution, so that when you have to go to meetings or interact with clients you can put on your more fashionable ones.
However, perhaps the most basic concept is to be aware of your surroundings. For example, how many of us have fallen on our backsides at sometime in our lives, when at the poolside? In other words look where you are going!
Responsibility for foot health safety rests with employee and employer.
The Health & Safety legislation is designed to protect everybody. Including the forklift driver who says he must wear tekkies instead of safety shoes, because the safety shoes hurt. Fine, but remember that if you get hurt, there is no compensation.
However, I do blame employers who budget for only the cheapest safety footwear, when being distracted by uncomfortable footwear could lead to an accident at work. There is a real need to look to buy the best safety footwear the company can afford. It’s people’s health after all.
On the other hand, the beautiful corporate HQ with imported tiled floors, may actually be an accident waiting to happen.
Paying attention to where you are walking and what you are doing is another important measure in preventing slips, trips & falls. What do I mean? The dreaded cellphone! Walking & talking can be just as dangerous as driving and talking.
We had a good discussion about high heels!
On my way through the campus I noticed a beautiful young woman tip-toeing along past a wet floor [it was well-marked by the cleaning staff with warning boards] on what I guess were 7cm high heels. Her strides were very short and she wobbled along to keep from slipping on the tiled floor.
As I’ve pointed out before, a high heel shortens your stride and reduces your ability to walk normally. Add to this a shiny floor and there is an accident waiting to happen.
In the ESKOM HQ and many others I’m sure, the floors are spotlessly clean and shiny. Usually tiled and very smooth. This means that there is little grip between the sole of your shoe and the floor. An ideal situation for a slip, trip or fall.
Foot Health and Safety at work is everyones business and responsiblity.
Walking is probably the easiest and cheapest form of exercise available to us. The 702 Walk the Talk takes place on 25 July and 50,000 entrants are expected to hit the streets of Johannesburg.
Podiatry students from the University of Johannesburg will be walking aswell as offering foot care advice and screening at their Caravan Clinic. Some podiatrists will also be joining them. Some to walk and others – like me – to talk!
There are many benefits of walking; improved circulation, increased energy, longer life, being happier and stronger bones, are just a few.
30 minutes a day and 3 times a week is recommended! Where to find the time? You may ask. Well it doesn’t have to be all at once. Just think about your day and see if you aren’t already doing some walking.
The important thing is – BRISK – not strolling to check out the neighbours new extension!
Brisk means just that and starts by moving around more quickly with everything you do. Start by taking the stairs when possible. Obviously it’s a bit silly to walk up 15 floors, but you can work up to it. I used to work in a building where I gradually worked up to 7 floors. When I was in there again recently, I could still do it, but slowly! I need to walk more.
Start slowly by putting in say 10 minutes [distance doesn’t matter] every day. Set targets and slowly increase. If you rush out and do 30 minutes or try to get kilometres in under a specific time, I look forward to treating you for shin splints, plantar fasciitis, blisters etc.
Become familiar with your normal speed and pace and maintain it. Sudden rushes and surges only increase the risk of injury.
Try to walk with someone. especially someone you can talk to. As you get better, one of the tests of improvement is being able to hold a converstaion with your walking partner.
You must wear a decent tekkie/trainer. After a few weeks if you do develop pains that won’t go away, look at whether the shoes are deforming in any way. That could suggest a biomechanical problem. Then you need to see a podiatrist for advice.
Sometimes, starting a walking programme reveals an underlying condition. Specifically there is a condition called intermittent claudication which is felt as a cramping or tightening of the muscles at the back of the lower leg. It occurs every time an afflicated person walks a specific distance at their regular pace OR when they walk up a slope or incline. The distance will vary with individual physical status, but it occurs regularly at the same distance.
Basically, what is happening is that the muscles are starved of oxygen because the arteries are hardened and narrowed – usually by cholesterol plaques. If this does happen, then beware, it could also be happening to another muscle your heart! Pay your doctor a visit for a check up.
So if you want to:
Start walking. No excuses! We’ve had a month sitting watching football.
Now fight the winter chills, improve your health and WALK.
As South Africa welcomes the world to the Soccer World Cup, I was reminded that the area not far from Johannesburg is The Cradle of Mankind.
This is where fossil evidence of early man has been found and more is still being discovered. The most recent fossil discovery was of a small female named Australopithecus sediba.
Of podiatric interest, the fossil known as “Little Foot” was also discovered in “The Cradle” as it is known.
Additional evidence found in “The Cradle” shows that the area – and the continent – once formed part of Gondwanaland.
If you want to know more, Google – Maropeng – and find out about your origins. Better still treat yourself to a day out at Maropeng, learn about your origins and see these fossils at close hand.
Football and podiatry. What a combination! The FIFA World Cup has arrived in South Africa. 64 games, each game with at 22 pairs of players feet, plus the 3 pairs of the officials, on the field at any one time! (Unless someone gets sent off).
Add the team officials and finally the fans – 98,000 of them for the first game. Feet for Africa. Call for the podiatrist.
The podiatrists associated with the World Cup are ready for foot problems that might afflict players, officials and fans.
I was surprised to learn from one of the World Cup podiatrists that very few countries have a podiatrist associated with their teams. I think this is a great opportunity to get them to understand that many foot injuries can be prevented and treated better by podiatrists than anybody else.
During the next month, I hope everybody enjoys this great event and when ‘footbal feet’ get sore, they will find some special South African podiatrists ready.
Verrucae are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV), which commonly infects the skin. It affects the lower layers of the skin and causes a change in the growth pattern of the skin which results in a small tumour. However, this tumour is BENIGN!
Traditionally, podiatrists were taught that verrucae affect the younger patient, but it is quite clear that they can affect any age group. I have recently treated a 70 yearold lady!
Warts occur on any part of your foot and even under the toe-nails. They also appear differently as they develop. Often starting as a small puncture mark they can develop to look like a cauliflower growing in the skin.
Plantar warts are the most common – that is on the sole of your foot – growing anywhere, including on weight-bearing areas, where they are really painful.
Diagnosis is a big problem, podiatrists believe that many hard corns are misdiagnosed as plantar warts – with resulting surgical excision – which is wrong and leaves painful scar tissue in many cases.
Recognising clinical appearance is very important and difficult. Although it starts as a small spot, later the skin striations are usually pushed aside in a wart. The growth looks like a cauliflower, with black dots in the middle. Often there is a group of them, not just a single growth. They can grow on any skin surface including the knees and hands. Pain like a pin- prick is common on pressing and also throbbing when the foot is lifted off the ground.
Treatment is variable! Some of us will freeze with Liquid Nitrogen. We also use Acids in pastes or solutions. Excision is the last resort (in my opinion), but electro-dessication under local anaesthetic does work. Although you have to get used to the smell of a bad braai whilst doing this treatment! The dead tissue always needs cutting off. This is not usually too painful.
Plantar warts are my worst nightmare and I tell my patients that I call them “reputation ruiners”, because they can take weeks to clear and often new ones grow during treatment. They also spread quickly in boarding school and some families – and sometimes they don’t!
That’s traditional treatment. If you don’t like the sound of it try some ‘home remedies’. Rubbing it with liver. Kissing a toad. Rubbing with various medicinal herbs (this works). Shouting at the moon, or finally, hoping that the Golden Lions rugby side wins one game in next years Super 14 competition!
So what to do