Verrucae are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV), which commonly infects the skin. It affects the lower layers of the skin and causes a change in the growth pattern of the skin which results in a small tumour. However, this tumour is BENIGN!
Traditionally, podiatrists were taught that verrucae affect the younger patient, but it is quite clear that they can affect any age group. I have recently treated a 70 yearold lady!
Warts occur on any part of your foot and even under the toe-nails. They also appear differently as they develop. Often starting as a small puncture mark they can develop to look like a cauliflower growing in the skin.
Plantar warts are the most common – that is on the sole of your foot – growing anywhere, including on weight-bearing areas, where they are really painful.
Diagnosis is a big problem, podiatrists believe that many hard corns are misdiagnosed as plantar warts – with resulting surgical excision – which is wrong and leaves painful scar tissue in many cases.
Recognising clinical appearance is very important and difficult. Although it starts as a small spot, later the skin striations are usually pushed aside in a wart. The growth looks like a cauliflower, with black dots in the middle. Often there is a group of them, not just a single growth. They can grow on any skin surface including the knees and hands. Pain like a pin- prick is common on pressing and also throbbing when the foot is lifted off the ground.
Treatment is variable! Some of us will freeze with Liquid Nitrogen. We also use Acids in pastes or solutions. Excision is the last resort (in my opinion), but electro-dessication under local anaesthetic does work. Although you have to get used to the smell of a bad braai whilst doing this treatment! The dead tissue always needs cutting off. This is not usually too painful.
Plantar warts are my worst nightmare and I tell my patients that I call them “reputation ruiners”, because they can take weeks to clear and often new ones grow during treatment. They also spread quickly in boarding school and some families – and sometimes they don’t!
That’s traditional treatment. If you don’t like the sound of it try some ‘home remedies’. Rubbing it with liver. Kissing a toad. Rubbing with various medicinal herbs (this works). Shouting at the moon, or finally, hoping that the Golden Lions rugby side wins one game in next years Super 14 competition!
So what to do
Many older people suffer a fall with consequent injury such as a fractured shoulder, wrist, hip, ankle or foot. In the UK there is an active falls prevention initiative, promoted by the National Health Service. Not so in South Africa, although we are aware of the problem.
Have you ever thought how the state of your feet could contribute to a fall? Podiatrists should be involved in preventing falls and your visit to one could help to prevent one.
Hazel Tomkins, a British podiatrist, writing in Podiatry Now has detailed how your feet can cause a fall.
So, if you want to stand on your own two feet here’s what to look out for.
Any corn, callus, ulceration, painful nail condition alters the way your foot hits the ground. This usually makes walking uncomfortable and unsteady. With age, the cushioning fatty pad on the soles of the feet thins out – giving less protection to the bones and joints underneath.
Changes to the basic shape of the feet alters the ability to walk evenly. Often the cause of these changes is reduced muscle strength. On the other hand, any change in posture – quite common as we age – is associated with weakening of our muscles, so there is the potential for loss of balance or unsteadiness.
Watch out for changes to the length of your legs after hip or knee replacement surgery. The pain has gone but you really do need to do all the physiotherapy to restore muscle strength and balance.
At the same time there are many changes to hearing and eyesight which affect the ability to balance and see clearly what is going on around us.
If you have any nerve changes associated with diabetes (neuropathy), you are disadvantaged, because you have a reduced ability to respond to the sensory stimuli around you. On the other hand, arthritis can cause deformity as well as stiffness, making movement difficult, slower or unsteady.
Research into barefoot walking showed a 19% worse performance when barefoot compared with even a least unstable shoe. Going barefoot or stocking feet dramatically increases the falls risk.
Simple you might think, I’ll wear slippers or shoes. Well this is an area of some dispute. There is good scientific evidence that if you change to a lower or flat heel after a lifetime of wearing high heels, you have a greater risk of falling! At the same time there is research which suggests that the most important feature of footwear in preventing falls is the grip of the sole on the ground. Added to that is the need for good fit and thicker soles.
So what to do?
Keep mobile – exercise regularly – start walking, even if you use a walking aid. Maybe you need to start using one? Make sure that you can see and hear as well as possible.
A visit to a podiatrist for a biomechanical assessment is an important way to identify any underlying structural and functional problems. Treatment of any painful foot condition, such as corns and calluses, is essential and information on the best shoes for you, will be provided.
Avoid higher heels, barefoot walking and slippers. Consider wearing trainers with a rippled sole. A word of warning though, some trainers have really ‘grippy’ soles and that can cause a fall!
Try to remove all loose carpet runners and potential hazards that you could trip over. Make sure the lighting in your home is adequate (most falls occur at home!).
It takes team work to prevent falls, so get any advice that you can, or share it with those who you know are at most risk of a fall.